tooth found in Siberia:
Can the tooth from the Denisova cave
give us clues?
bones found in the Denisova cave in Altai Krai in the southern
part of Siberia have given us a new homo species: Denisova
hominins. Our archaic
cousin was genetically distinct from both Homo Sapiens and
Homo Neanderthal but is believed to have interbred with both.
A tooth found in the cave is the largest homo tooth ever found
- can this be a clue to who the giants were?
It was in 2008 that Russian archaeologists found a small bone
fragment from the pinkie finger of a young hominin in the
Denisova cave of southern Siberia. Artifacts, including a
bracelet, excavated at the same level were carbon dated to
around 40.000 BP. The bonefragment was sent to the Max Planck
Institute in Leipzig, Germany, for genetic analysis. The researchers
were shocked when
they saw the result - the finger was not human! It was a remnant
of a previously
unknown hominin, distinct from both early modern humans and
Neanderthals. The scientists
do not yet know
what the Denisova hominin looked like but they believe that
all three probably came into contact and
since the finger bone was found within 65 miles of Homo Sapiens
and Homo Neanderthal sites.
Pääbo with Neanderthal
Denisova Cave (red spot)
The mitochondrial DNA of the Denisova
hominin suggests its ancestors left Africa around one million
years ago but Prof. Dr. Svante Pääbo says it is
possible that there are many other unknown hominin fossils
waiting to be discovered. He says palaeontologists will continue
to search for remnants in Siberia and other northern regions,
where cold weather helps preserve ancient DNA.
The only Denisova remains discovered
so far are the finger bone, two teeth and a toe bone, - so
it is difficult to say exactly how this homo species looked
like. But the first tooth found is the largest homo tooth
ever found; it was so large that the archaeologist at first
mistook it for a cave bear tooth! The finger bone was unusually
broad and robust, well outside what is seen in modern people.
Some of the more interesting aspects of the find were the
linkages between the extinct Denisovan and the people of Papua
New Guinea in the Pacific; Denisovan DNA is in the genomes
of the Melanesian people (and most probably also the aborigines
of Australia) - on the other side of the world!
The Russian archaeologist together
with archaeologists from the Max Planck Institute also later
discovered a tooth in the cave. They first thought it to be
a molar of a cave bear but it soon became obvious that it
was the tooth of a hominid. It was too large, however, to
be from a modern man or Neanderthal. When the researchers
finally succeeded in decoding the DNA of the tooth they found
it to be similar to that of the finger bone; it hailed from
a previously unknown early human species living in Asia at
least 30.000 years ago; the Denisova hominin.
The archaeologists also discovered artefacts
alongside the bones, that raises the possibility that the
Denisova hominin had an advanced culture:
- The fossil was found with modern
technology and ornaments, including a very beautiful bracelet,
one of the researchers said.
The Denisova cave is located in Altai Krai, at the border
of the Altai Republic of Russia in the southern part of Siberia.
The cave is near the village of Chorny Anui about 150 km south
of Barnaul, the nearest major city. It is approximately 28
m above the right bank of the Anuy River, has formed in upper
Silurian limestone. It contains a central chamber with a floor
of 9 x 11 meters, and has some side galleries. The cave sediments
are rich with remnants of animals, including extinct ones.
Krai is a part of the Altai mountain system that covers a
vast region spanning four countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, China
and Mongolia. The highest and partly glaciated region lies
in Russia and rises up to 4506m (Mt. Belukha) the highest
point of Siberia. It extends southeast from there and merges
into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert.
Altai Krai has rolling foothills,
grasslands, lakes, rivers, and mountains. The area has significant
mineral reserves, included gold. In Turkic and Mongolic languages
the name Altai means the "Golden Mountain".
The Altai Krai area is part of a great
crossroads in the ancient world. Nomadic tribes composed of
different peoples crossed through the territory during periods
of migration. It is mostly inhabited by Russians and by the
local Altaians. The Altaians/Altay is a Turkic people, who
were originally nomadic and date back at least to the 2nd
The area is rich with remains from
various ancient cultures and archaeological sites reveal that
ancient humans lived here. The southern Siberia is also one
of the richest regions in in megalithic sites, with huge stone
walls, dolmen and menhirs, with legends telling of a disappeared
Ice Princess of Altai
1993 archaeologists found the mummified body of a young woman
on Ukok Plateau, less than 200 kilometres away from the Denisova
cave. She became known as the Princess of Altai, She died
2,500 years ago and the cause of her death and the tattoos
she has is still shrouded a mystery. The brain and internal
organs were removed, assumingly as a part of an ancient funeral
ceremony. However, scientists managed to obtain DNA (haplogroup
R1a), and it helped to reconstruct the ethnic history of the
Pazyryks, who inhabited the Altai mountains during 5-3 centuries
B.C. The Princess does not relate to any of the Asian races;
She has a European appearance with blond hair and she is 170
centimetres tall (5 feet 6 inches).
Ice Princess of Altai
The tattoo covers the woman's
both arms from her shoulders to her hands. A mythical animal
is depicted on the left shoulder of the mummy - an antlered
deer with the beak of a vulture. The Altai indigenous people
say that the mummy is their progenitor and they call her Princess
Kadyn (or Kydyn). They say that the tattoos conceal very important
information for mankind but that the time to read the information
has not come. They also believe that the woman was a priestess
and that she
passed away voluntarily to protect the Earth from evil spirits.
The Ice Princess (also called
Ice Maiden) was found in an undisturbed Pazyryk burial kurgan.
"Kurgan" is the Turkic term (more specifically from
Tatar) for a tumulus; mound of earth and stones raised over
a grave or graves, from a word meaning "fortress".
These burial mounds are complex
with internal chambers.
kurgan before excavations
1929 archaeological excavations in the Altai Mountain region
a number of kurgans. These ancient contained extensive artefacts,
including grave goods and
several bodies known as Ice Mummies, which were superbly
preserved the result of deliberate embalming
lain in the frozen ground for almost 2500 years. Grave robbers
have looted many of the valuable artefacts.
of the largest kurgans is Salbyk kurgan, to the east
and less than 200 kilometers
from the Denisova cave. Before excavations it was 25-30 meter
in height and 500 meter in diameter. It was surrounded by
standing stone statues called balbals, and was topped with
a obelisk. It is considered
that the Salbyk burial mound was created in the 4th century
B.C. for a distinguished tsar-warrior burying.
far as I know: No giant mummies have been found in any kurgan
in the southern Siberia. The Ice Princess with her 170 centimetre
was very tall for a young woman at the time. An ice mummy
man is mentioned as being very powerfully built almost like
a Cro-Magnon homo, while others are described as much more
seems that the mummies found in the kurgans in our area of
interest generally have been tall, but not extremely tall.
But; It is almost impossible to find information about the
hight of the ice mummies
found in southern Siberia! This is quite unusual when it comes
to archaeological findings
ancient human remains and should be raising some questions!
Woman in Azerbaijan kurgan,
Skeleton from Don-
too far away
There have been found tall old, skeletons in kurgans not too
far away - like in the woman in a kurgan of the neighbouring
country of Azerbaijan. One skeleton is on display for the
general public and the plaque says: "Kurgan. Woman funeral.
The Bronze Age 2000 BC. The hight of woman buried in kurgan
is 2m20centimetre. Near there are personal plates and folding
Also to the west in Siberia, close
to the Don river, at the major trading routes of the old world,
there has been found a large skeleton of a man in a kurgan.
He was 2 meter and 10 centimetres tall, estimated to be 2.4
thousand years old. An interesting that the man was trepanned
- somebody had performed surgery on his skull!
mummies have also been found in the Gobi desert area, the
extension of the Altai Mountains, called the Tarim mummies.
Excavations in the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang province of western
China have uncovered more than 100 naturally mummified corpses,
preserved by the arid climate; People who lived there between
4,000 and 2,400 years ago. Some of them were 2 meters tall,
or even taller, and they were so European looking that the
Chinese government for many years kept the mummies a secret.
But is no longer a secret that a Caucasian race with blond
and red hair and blue eyes lived in the area and DNA testing
data shows that the mummies had a Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) characteristic
of western Eurasia in the area of East-Central Europe, Central
Asia and Indus Valley.
Vekua with bones
If we go to the west from the Gobi-desert, we will eventually
come to republic of Georgia. We have in three articles seen
that there have been found bones of an ancient giant near
Borjomi in Georgia estimated to be 2.50 to 3 meters tall in
a remote area of a natural park at the feet of the Caucasus
Mountains. The renowned professor Abesalom Vekua believes
that the find is a sensation, and in the news story on the
Russian Channel One he shows the bones and confirms that they
it differs from the bones of modern man in size and thickness:
"They are mentioned as giants in the scientific literature,
although this hypothesis was not confirmed".
statues many places in the world
many of the kurgans there is a kind of stone statues called
balbals or kurgan stelae. The meaning of "balbal"
is supposedly from a Turkic word meaning "ancestor"
or "grandfather", or the from Mongolic word "barimal"
which means "handmade statue". They might be on
top of the kurgan, placed around it or in a double line extending
form a kurgan. These stelae are also described as "obelisks"
or "statue menhirs" and the encyclopedias say that
are found in large numbers in southern Siberia/Russia, Ukraine,
Prussia, Mongolia and Central Asia. Such stelae are believed
to be memorials to honour the dead. It was reported that when
kurgan obelisks of the Kalmyks held a bowl it was to deposit
a part of the ashes after the cremation of the deceased.
The strange ting is that you will
ancient stone statues looking the same all over the word,
from Siberia to Easter Island! They are all holding their
hands on the stomach, sometimes holding something in their
hands, sometimes not. Often very crude stone statues that
are said by the scientific world to depict a deceased person,
like a chief or a famous warrior. But the legends might tell
a different story; that they are very tall, white skinned
people that came from across the ocean in very ancient times
- after a world wide catastrophe. Or that they are gods that
came from the stars. Or the children that the gods or their
sons begot with the women of the earth.
Why are they looking so simular? Why
are they holding the hands on their stomachs? What are they
holding in their hands? Why do the hands on such ancient statues
or stelaes sometimes have six fingers? Why do the legends
tell the same stories? All over the world? And just by chance..?
No, we are not buying that - are we?
The majority of the mummies found in kurgans in Siberia and
the neighbouring countries are what usually is called european
or white caucasian people; White skinned, blond, tall. With
skulls shapes that we usually classify with the Nordic people:
Long skull length, narrow skull breadth and tall skull height,
and also a narrow nasal aperture. There are exeptions, however,
and as we can see from the picture of the Ice Prinsess; The
head is longer than would be expected, relative to the width
of the head. This is
called dolichocephaly and is said to be caused by genetic
disorder. Well, elongated ancient skulls, very elongated,
has been found all over the world, like Egypt, Iraq, Indonesia,
Australia, Caucasus Mountains and the Pacific islands,- as
well as South-, Central- and North America. It is said these
elongated skulls are the result of the practice of head-binding
(produced by binding the skull between two pieces of wood)
to demonstrate social status like royal blood. But there are
supposedly found ancient skulls that anthropologists suggest
are elongated not by bindings, but belonging to an entirely
different species only remotely similar to homo-genus. And
some even claim that the skulls are not human at all:
It has been found crystal skulls in the Himalayas with elongated
skulls and the legends are that it pictures aliens from the
star constellation of Sirius that came down to earth in a
Skull from Nazca, Peru
Daughter of pharaoh
The skull from Omsk
Also, quite close to the Denisova
cave in Altai Krai it has been found an elongated skull -
south of the city of Omsk a few hundred kilometers away. Igor
Skandakov, the director of the Omsk Museum of History and
Culture said: ''There are myths about gods who descended from
the heavens and who had elongated heads. They were very special
and were revered.'' But most scientists do not accept this
idea, and are certain that such deformation was carried out
either as a status symbol of belonging to the elite of society,
or perhaps as a way to enhance the functioning of one's brain.
''It's possible that somehow they were able to develop exceptional
brain capabilities,'' said archeologist Alexei Matveyev.
do not know what the Denisovians looked like. The
large molar hints that they were very tall but we do not know
for sure. What we know is that they had mtDNA unlike either
Neanderthals or Anatomically Modern (archaic) Humans and are
believed to represent the descendants of a previously unrecognized
hominid migration out of Africa. We also know
that the Neanderthals had larger brains
than our ancestors
and that the skulls were longer. Were they smarter than us?
Might be, new studies suggest that at least one group of Neanderthals
learned how to adapt and make different, better tools
from any byproduct of Neanderthal-human interactions. But
the tools they made were still very basic; roughly shaped
stone and bone. So what about the Denisovian? Well, they were
not human but still the scientists say these Denisovians used
"modern technology and ornaments, including a very beautiful
bracelet". How does this make any sense? Non-humans that
used human technology and fancy jewellery and humans that
went naked swinging their
Might be in the same cave thirty thousand years ago?
"The bracelet demonstrates
a high level of technological skills"
Yes, age estimates have been
carried out using various relative and absolute dating techniques,
and the bracelet is ca 30.000 years old. It was delicately
shaped, highly polished and has a less that 8 mm wide hole
drilled with a tapered drill that the scientists say must
have been running with considerable speed!
Giants or not - who were they?
So archaic humans, Neanderthals and Denisovians shared the
same area in Siberia 30.000 years ago but it suddenly seems
that we were the dumbest in the class! We do not know if the
Denisovians had the largest brains or were extremely tall
but it seems that they had a technology far, far ahead of
the time. So giants or not - who were they?
"Ostrich Eggshell Beads Found in Denisova Cave"
- read the article here
do you think?
have the following comments on your article about
the Denisova tooh and who they were":
are the ideas, thoughts and facts our readers have sent in:
Denisova - a.k.a. Abominable Snowman, Almas, Almasti,
Bigfoot, Hibagon, Kikomba, Meh-Teh, Mo-Mo, Oh-mahs,
Orang-Pendek, Raksha, Sasquatch, Skunk Ape, Tano Giant,
Wookie, Yerin, Yeti, Yowi, etc.
Enjoyed the article very much. Hope to see more in future.
I believe these are the remains of the Nephilim!
L. A. Marzulli
I expect that Denisovans will enter the taxonomic group
of humans with the discovery of more physical remains.
Despite the DNA evidence, we humans need to see to approve,
and a great many experts must approve to classify.
There were also find some microscopic-nanospirals in
Ural, built of hightechmaterial, some 300.000 years
(Here is a link to what Boris is mentioning - an
article in Yahoo Voices: Are
Russian Nanospirals Evidence of Alien Visitation to
Earth in the Distant Past?)
Come on with more, folks!